Common PKI Mistakes and How To Avoid Them
As an information security professional, I see many common mistakes organizations make when implementing PKI. This article will detail some of the most common implementation error scenarios, To raise awareness and help businesses avoid these implementation errors. These implementation errors include everything from using self-signed certificates to using expired public key infrastructure (PKI) certificates.
When it comes to cryptographic software like Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), dozens of mistakes can happen during installation or configuration that render it insecure. The following is a list of the five most common misconfigured PKI components:
- Expired Certificates
- Mismatched Validity Periods
- Self-signed Certificates
- Certificate Chaining Issues
- Improperly Configured Key Usage
Each of these five issues can lead to various security problems, including man-in-the-middle attacks, spoofing, and data tampering. Let’s take a closer look at each of these five mistakes and how businesses can avoid them.
When certificates expire, users can no longer use them for authentication or encryption. This leaves the door open for man-in-the-middle attacks and data interception. One way to prevent this from happening is to set up certificate expiration notifications to alert you when certificates are about to expire. Another solution is to use a certificate management system that automatically renews certificates before they expire.
Mismatched Validity Periods
When the validity periods for two different certificates overlap, it can lead to authentication and encryption errors. You can resolve this by ensuring that the validity periods for all certificates do not overlap.
Self-signed certificates are often used for testing or development environments, but developers should never use them in production. When self-signed certificates are used in a production environment, it leaves the door open for man-in-the-middle attacks and data tampering because it can be difficult to identify whether a user’s certificate was signed by an internal CA (certificate authority) by a public-facing CA.
Certificate Chaining Issues
When certificates are chained improperly, the system might not authenticate users. This occurs when the root certificate is not installed on the endpoint device. One way to resolve this issue is to install the root certificate on all client devices to authenticate against servers properly.
Improperly Configured Key Usage
A key usage error occurs when a certificate is used for purposes other than those stated in its certified use policy statement. Key usage errors can lead to authentication issues and man-in-the-middle attacks, and spoofing. To avoid this, ensure that the key usage settings for all certificates are configured correctly.
Avoiding The Mistakes
Now that we’ve looked at the five most common PKI mistakes let’s look at how businesses can avoid them.
The best way to improve PKI program management is to use a certificate management system. A certificate management system will automate the process of certificate management, including certificate issuance, renewal, and revocation. It will also help you keep track of all of your certificates and their expiration dates.
Another way to avoid these mistakes is to set up expiration notifications for all of your certificates. This will ensure that you are alerted when certificates are about to expire.
You should also make sure that all of your certificates have different validity periods and use appropriate key usage settings, including the following:
- Ensure that self-signed certificates are not used in a production environment. Only use them for proof of concept or testing purposes. Self-signed certificates can lead to man-in-the-middle attacks and data tampering.
- Do not configure a certificate with an overly permissive certificate policy (CP). A permissive CPs enables a certificate to be used for purposes other than stated in its certified use policy statement, which can lead to unauthorized access and information disclosure issues. To improve PKI program management, follow industry standards when configuring CAs and certificate policies.
- When configuring key usage, make sure that it matches the purpose of the certificate. For example, the system should not use a client authentication certificate for email encryption.
- Verify that all certificates are chained correctly and that the root certificate is installed on all endpoint devices. This will help ensure that users are authenticated properly.
- Make sure that all certificates have different validity periods to avoid overlap errors. Certificate overlap can lead to authentication and encryption errors.
PKI mistakes can lead to various issues, including data tampering, man-in-the-middle attacks, and spoofing. By following the tips in this article, you can avoid these mistakes and improve your PKI program management.
Certificate management systems are essential for businesses that improve PKI program management. A certificate management system will automate the process of certificate management, including certificate issuance, renewal, and revocation. It will also help you keep track of all of your certificates and their expiration dates.